Antibiotic Alternatives in Poultry and Fish Feed

Phytogenic Substances: A Promising Approach Towards Sustainable Aquaculture Industry

Author(s): Abdelrazeq M. Shehata, Abdel-Moneim E. Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed G. A. Gewida, Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Mahmoud Alagawany and Mohammed A. E. Naiel * .

Pp: 160-193 (34)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815049015122010014

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)

Abstract

The aquaculture industry has shown rapid growth over the last three decades, especially with improving the farming systems. However, the rapid expansion and intensification practices in the aquaculture sector have been marred by increased stress levels and disease outbreaks, and subsequently, high fish mortality. Excessive use of veterinary drugs and antibiotics in aquaculture poses a great threat to human and aquatic animals' health, as well as to the biosystem. Furthermore, exposure to various pollutants such as industrial effluents and agricultural pesticides may cause devastating toxicological aspects of fish and adversely affect their health and growth. Besides, with a growing world population, there is a growing interest in intensifying aquaculture production to meet the global demand for nutritional security needs. Uncontrolled intensification of aquaculture production makes aquatic animals both vulnerable to, and potential sources of a wide range of hazards include pathogen transmission, disease outbreak, immunosuppression, impaired growth performance, malnutrition, foodborne illness, and high mortality. Plant-derived compounds are generally recognized as safe for fish, humans, and the environment and possess great potential as functional ingredients to be applied in aquaculture for several purposes. Phytogenic additives comprise a wide variety of medicinal plants and their bioactive compounds with multiple biological functions. The use of phytogenic compounds can open a promising approach towards enhancing the health status of aquatic animals. However, further invivo trials are necessary under favorable conditions with controlled amounts of identi-fied bioactive compounds along with toxicity testing for fish safety towards a realistic evaluation of the tested substance efficacy.


Keywords: Antibiotic alternative, Antimicrobial activity, Antioxidant activity, Aquaculture, Gut microbiota, Immunostimulants, Phytogenic.

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