A spike in the emergence of several viruses is observed in the modern era,
including the present SARS-CoV2 virus. The continuous emergence of new viral
strains and growing resistance to the existing antiviral drugs urge new drug targets and
novel antiviral candidates against them. Host genes utilized by the viruses for their
proliferation, also known as host factors, have surfaced as a new antiviral strategy. If
affordable to the host cells, targeting the host factors may prove beneficial in
controlling viral infection. Host factors play an essential function in the viral life cycle,
and modulating their functions would thus impact viral replication. Often, the
interacting interfaces between the host and the viral proteins aim at antiviral
interventions. This aspect of antiviral drug development is in its inception phase.
However, with the advancement in molecular techniques identifying various viral host
factors, this field is believed to have immense potential as an antiviral drug targeting
strategy. This chapter briefly describes the host proteins' implication in viral biology
and how they can be exploited to treat viral diseases.