A robust adaptive finite-time controller for satellite fast attitude maneuver is proposed in this paper. The standard sliding mode is robust to some typical disturbances, but the convergence speed is slow and often could not meet the system requirements. The finite-time sliding mode not only has the robustness of the classical sliding mode, but also could greatly improve the terminal convergence speed. In order to deal with inertia matrix uncertainty, a finite-time adaptive law for inertia matrix estimation variables is proposed. A new method to deal with the singularity problem is proposed,based on the properties of Euler rotations. Considering that the variable estimation system has no direct feedback, an auxiliary state that converges slower than the system is designed to achieve finite-time stability. The Lyapunov method is used to demonstrate the global finite-time stability of the ensemble, and the numerical simulation results demonstrate the performance of the controller.