Nanopharmacology and Nanotoxicology: Clinical Implications and Methods

Advances in Nano Vaccines: Covid-19

Author(s): Zahra Asefy, Aygun Nasibova, Sirus Hoseinnejhad, Asif Selimoğlu, Mehmet Fırat Baran and Cumali Keskin * .

Pp: 195-206 (12)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815079692123010011

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)

Abstract

Nanovaccines are considered a new approach in vaccination methodology specially for Covid-19 infection. Nanovaccines are more effective than conventional vaccines; Because of humoral and cellular immune responses which are simultaneously induced. Nano vaccines are assumed to upregulate the immune system as well as infection prevention. They are probably promising candidates for chronic autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, AIDS, and COVID-19 infectious. Based on this, we will describe the different working mechanisms of nanoparticles. In addition, applicable nano vaccines which have been approved for COVID-19 therapy Covid 19 are described. Antigen-carrying nanoparticles can affect the immune response and significantly enhance cell-T cytotoxic response. Nanoscale particles can improve vaccine efficiency because of their biomedical benefits. These properties include Small size, which allows better penetration into tumors and more half-life tumor cells. Current vaccines, however, are required to re-formulate almost because of gradual antigen modifications. More ever these vaccines do not protect against mutations and the low half-life of current vaccines due to limitations of current technologies. Nano vaccine formulation improvements have been required to induce a widespread and potent immune response. In this review, we provide an overview of the types and applications of nanoparticles in vaccines and their outstanding properties that made them alternatives for Covid-19 treatment. 


Keywords: Covid-19, Inorganic nanoparticle, Virus-like particles, Nano vaccines.

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