Alkaloids and Other Nitrogen-Containing Derivatives

Biogenic Amine and Amino Acid Derivatives as Carbonic Anhydrase Modulators

Author(s): Emanuela Berrino* and Fabrizio Carta

Pp: 152-188 (37)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815123678123030009

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


Biogenic amines (BAs) and amino acids (AAs) are essential components of every living organism, being the precursors of vital compounds, such as hormones, alkaloids, nucleic acids and proteins, among others. They are directly involved in many metabolic processes, growth regulation, cellular transmission and diseases. A plethora of biological substrates yet to be fully identified are the targets of BAs and AAs. The Carbonic Anhydrases (CAs; EC are listed among them. These metalloenzymes are virtually expressed in every living organism, with eight genetically distinct families described to date. CAs main biological function is represented by CO2 hydration catalysis. Amino acids and amines are usually reported as efficient CA activators and are thus potentially useful for therapeutic purposes in aging and neurodegenerative diseases as well as tissue engineering. To date, polyamines are the only exception as they were identified to act as CA inhibitors. Here, we will review the main contributions in the field covering the effects of such crucial molecules on CAs expressed in various organisms (mammals, fungi, protozoan, bacteria and archaea). Synthetic analogues of amines and amino acids obtained from various drug design approaches, will also be considered. 

Keywords: Amino Acids, Biogenic amines, Bone mineralization, Carbonic anhydrase activators (CAAs), Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs), Drug design, Enhanced spatial learning, Pathogens CAs.

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