The breeding of small ruminants has a huge social and environmental impact
globally. Due to rising production costs concerning milk prices and customer desire for
harmless and superior quality food, efficient features have become crucial for effective
breeding programs. Most farmers are unaware of the strategic value of genetic
improvement and lack the incentive to support breeding projects on their own, so
government money has been the primary funding source for breeding initiatives.
Genetic markers have been employed to help with paternity determination,
confirmation, variety protection, and breeding standard selection. An integrated
strategy is required to assist in the creation of breeding programs and solve the
problems of improving indigenous breeds, like sheep and goats. Genome selection and
innovative reproductive technologies are examples of scientific progress that will allow
for quicker and more effective genetic improvement. The whole strategy should
improve the competitiveness and long-term survivability of the indigenous population.
This chapter is focused on determining particular breeding targets of sheep and goats
that represent the sector's priorities and demands, gene-assisted selection, and the
capabilities of disease-free indigenous populations.