Cancer Genes

Chromosome 18

Author(s): Sivasankari Ramadurai, Saurav Panicker and Satish Ramalingam * .

Pp: 202-226 (25)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815136500123020008

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)

Abstract

Cancer is an abnormal or unusual growth of cells in the body with invasive and migrating potential. It leads to loss of function, weakens the immune system, and is the second leading cause of death worldwide. This makes it important to eliminate the disease. Genetic predisposition imposes a high relative risk for several kinds of cancer. Inherited genetic mutations are responsible for causing 5 to 10 percent of all cancers. Scientists have investigated mutations in specific genes with more than 50 hereditary cancer syndromes. For this, chromosome 18 was explored for its genes associated with cancer and this study unveiled 30 genes involved in causing cancer. Of these, the genes DCC, EPB41L3, MBD1 PHLPP1, and RBBP8 were the potential tumor suppressors. This chromosome consists of the target genes of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway. The SMAD family genes (SMAD4, SMAD7, and SMAD2) are encoded by this chromosome, of which SMAD4 acts as a tumor suppressor. SERPINB5 and TCF-4 were the potential oncogenes. The enzyme coded by TYMS was a potential therapeutic target for chemotherapy. Several fusion genes of this chromosome (SS18-SSX2B, SS18-SSX2, and SS18-SSX4) have been identified to cause cancer. Therefore, this chapter provides a summary of the genes in chromosome 18 that are involved in the initiation and proliferation of cancer and provides an insight into the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for clinical application to develop a cancer-free world.


Keywords: Biomarker, Cancer, Chromosome 18, Colorectal cancer, Genes, Oncogene, Proto-oncogene, SMAD family, TGF-β signaling, Therapeutic target, Tumor, Tumor suppressor.

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