Cancer Genes

Chromosome 19

Author(s): Chandrakumar Subramanian, Saurav Panicker and Satish Ramalingam * .

Pp: 227-250 (24)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815136500123020009

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)


Gene is considered discrete coding units that contain the information for individual proteins. These lot of genes were combined and named DNA which is tightly coiled many times over the histone protein to form Chromosomes. Humans have got 23pairs of chromosomes, including the sex chromosome. The current study is about the major genes and their functions that are present in chromosome 19. There are approximately 1500 genes present in this chromosome, and changes in chromosome 19 are identified in many cancers. Dislocation of the chromosome, a mutation in genes that are present in a chromosome (rearrangements, deletions, or duplications) of DNA in the chromosome, epigenetic modification, and lifestyle changes are some of the chromosomal abnormalities that are responsible for cancer-causing. These changes will trigger the growth of normal cells and induce cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. The signaling pathways like PI3K/AKT, JAK/STAT, NF-κB, and TGF-β are responsible for the various cellular functions with the result of autocrine, juxtacrine, intracrine, paracrine, or endocrine. When the dysregulation of these signaling pathways leads to cancer progression and metastasis. Prostate cancer, breast cancer, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, colon cancer, gastric cancer, lung cancer, leukemia, and cervical cancer are the major cancers that are caused because of mutation that occurs in chromosome 19.

Keywords: Histone protein, Mutation, Epigenetic Modification, Proliferation, Migration, Invasion, Angiogenesis, Metastasis, Paracrine, Endocrine, Breast Cancer, Pancreatic Cancer

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