Molecular and Physiological Insights into Plant Stress Tolerance and Applications in Agriculture

Understanding Molecular Mechanisms of Plant Physiological Responses Under Drought and Salt Stresses

Author(s): Abhishek Kanojia, Ayushi Jaiswal and Yashwanti Mudgil * .

Pp: 156-184 (29)

DOI: 10.2174/9789815136562123010011

* (Excluding Mailing and Handling)

Abstract

The change in global climate patterns raised issues related to soil salinization, desertification, unseasonal rains, and droughts which directly or indirectly influence agricultural produce. Plants have some level of tolerance towards various stresses, and this tolerance capacity varies among plant species based on their genetic constitution and evolutionary adaptability. Abiotic stress sensing and responses in plants involve complex pathways containing multiple steps and genes. To survive in stressful conditions, plants need to adjust their physiological and metabolic processes. Adjustments in these processes involve complex changes at the molecular level resulting in a plant’s adaptation at a morphological and developmental level, which in turn impacts agriculture yields (biomass). Here in this chapter, we are emphasizing molecular dissection of the physiological responses towards salt and drought stress. The study of salt and drought stress responses in plants is also important from an agricultural perspective. We aim to provide up-to-date advancements in the molecular biology field to explain ‘stress sensing to stress response’ in plants which involves multifaceted pathways and networks. We will be covering the process starting from sensing, transfer of signals, regulation of gene expressions, synthesis of osmolytes-metabolites, ROS scavenging pathways, etc.., involved in the survival of plants. This chapter will specifically address information regarding salt and drought stress effects and responses in plants. 


Keywords: Drought, Environmental Stress, Molecular Physiology, Salt, Signaling.

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