Oxidative stress, occurring as a consequence of imbalance between the production of oxygen free radicals and inactivation of these species by antioxidant defense system, seems to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of several diseases. In fact, there are numerous cellular biochemical targets for oxidative stress, all susceptible to long-lasting dangerous effects, especially if they take place early during infancy. Therefore, it is fundamental to obtain data starting in prepuberty to fully explore the intriguing relationship between precocious impairment of the oxidant-antioxidant status and organic alterations, and to preserve prepubertal children to the tracking of disease from infancy to adulthood. Nowadays the identification of children with a highly altered oxidant-antioxidant status is possible through accurate analysis. Much work still needs to be done to offer appropriate treatments aiming to guarantee a good quality of life for the young patients.
Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, type 1 diabetes, advanced glycation endproducts, malonildialdehyde, type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis, small for gestational age