The territory of the Madonie Mountains is considered as a biodiversity hot-spot in the Mediterranean Basin. Since long distinguished botanists who have studied the vegetation of this particular territory were fascinated by the high level of species diversity. In this chapter, an overview of the geographical, geological, soil, climatic and vegetation features of the area is provided. Madonie territory is an important center of diversity for fungi and in particular for species belonging to the genus Pleurotus growing on roots of plants of the family Apiaceae.
Keywords: Apiaceae, Basidiomycota, Biodiversity, Cachryetum ferulaceae subass. cachryetosum, Cachrys ferulacea, Checklist, Elaeoselinum asclepium subsp. asclepium, Fagus sylvatica, Ferula communis var. communis, Fungal diversity, Madonie Mts, Mediterranean Basin, Pleurotus, Pleurotus eryngii var. elaeoselini, Pleurotus eryngii var. eryngii, Pleurotus eryngii var. ferulae, Pleurotus eryngii var. thapsiae, Pleurotus nebrodensis, Sicily, Vegetation landscape.