The acute inflammatory response that occurs due to tissue injury or infection involves multiple cell types with both overlapping and specific functions. The resident mast cell is an important sentinel and able to rapidly release proinflammatory mediators via degranulation. Phagocytic cells, including neutrophils and macrophages, produce cytokines that promote inflammation, but are also important for the clearance of microbes and apoptotic cells. Importantly, macrophages also provide substantial reparative signals to direct the healing process once the inflammatory insult is cleared. Other cells that may mediate acute inflammation include epithelial cells and lymphocytes. This chapter reviews the key functions of these cells in response to an acute insult.
Keywords: Cytokines, Inflammation, Innate immunity, Macrophages, Mast cells, Monocytes, Neutrophils, Phagocytosis.