Generic placeholder image

The Natural Products Journal


ISSN (Print): 2210-3155
ISSN (Online): 2210-3163

Research Article

GABA and 5-HT Receptor Mediated Anxiolytic Effect of Essential Oil of Ferula sumbul Hook. Roots

Author(s): Sonali Batra, Ashwani Kumar* and Anupam Sharma

Volume 10, Issue 3, 2020

Page: [262 - 271] Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/2210315509666190211123646

Price: $65


Background: Ferula sumbul Hook. (Umbelliferae) roots have been traditionally used as sedative in nervous disorders.

Objective: The present study identifies the components of essential oil of F. sumbul roots (EOFS) using GC-MS analysis and further evaluates mechanism-based anxiolytic potential of oil.

Materials and Methods: EOFS was extracted using Clevenger apparatus, and was screened for anxiolytic activity using an elevated plus maze model. A battery of models was subsequently used to confirm the anxiolytic potential of EOFS. Further, benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor antagonist flumazenil and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) were used for investigating the possible involvement of GABA receptors.

Results: GC-MS analysis of EOFS revealed the presence of 32 components comprising triterpenoids and their derivatives. The oil exhibited significant anxiolytic activity at 50 μl/kg in various models like the elevated plus maze, light/dark, mirror chamber, open-field and mCPP-induced anxiety. The observation that anxiolytic effect of EOFS was completely blocked by benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor antagonist flumazenil, and partially by pentylenetetrazole, clearly demonstrates that anxiolytic activity of the oil is mediated mainly through BZD site on GABA receptors. Further, a significant reversal of mCPP induced anxiety by EOFS strongly indicates the possible involvement of 5-HT receptors in mediating anxiolytic activity of the oil.

Conclusion: Results of the present study clearly demonstrates the anxiolytic potential of EOFS and, thus, validates the traditional relevance of the plant. This is the first report not only on multi-model based antianxiety activity of EOFS but also on the possible antianxiety mechanism of the oil.

Keywords: Essential oil, GABA, BZD, Ferula sumbul, anxiolytic, GC-MS.

Graphical Abstract
Mesfin, M.; Asres, K.; Shibeshi, W. Evaluation of anxiolytic activity of the essential oil of the aerial part of Foeniculum vulgare Miller in mice. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 2014, 14, 310.
[] [PMID: 25149087]
Girish, C.; Raj, V.; Arya, J.; Balakrishnan, S. Involvement of the GABAergic system in the anxiolytic-like effect of the flavonoid ellagic acid in mice. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2013, 710(1-3), 49-58.
[] [PMID: 23603526]
Madaan, R.; Kumar, S.; Bansal, G.; Sharma, A. Plant drugs used to combat menace of anxiety disorders. Phcog Commn., 2011, 1(1), 4-51.
de Sousa, D.P.; de Almeida Soares Hocayen, P.; Andrade, L.N.; Andreatini, R. A systematic review of the anxiolytic-like effects of essential oils in animal models. Molecules, 2015, 20(10), 18620-18660.
[] [PMID: 26473822]
Sastri, B.N. The wealth of India: Raw materials. CSIR, New Delhi, India, 1956, 4, 260.
Batra, S.; Kumar, A.; Sharma, A. Pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies on Ferula sumbul Hook. Roots. J. Pharmacogn. and Phytochem, 2017, 6(4), 965-968.
Batra, S.; Kumar, A.; Sharma, A. Isolation, characterization and antianxiety activity of pentacosan-13-ol from Ferula sumbul Hook. Roots. J. Biol. Active Prod. Nat, 2018, 8(3), 171-179.
OECD.OECD Guidelines for testing of chemicals: Acute oral toxicity - Acute toxic class method. Test no. 423, adopted 22nd march 1996, and revised method adopted 17th December 2001; OECD: Paris, 2001.
Lister, R.G. The use of a plus-maze to measure anxiety in the mouse. Psychopharmacology (Berl.), 1987, 92(2), 180-185.
[] [PMID: 3110839]
Montgomery, K.C. The relation between fear induced by novel stimulation and exploratory behavior. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol., 1955, 48(4), 254-260.
[] [PMID: 13252152]
Pellow, S.; Chopin, P.; File, S.E.; Briley, M. Validation of open:closed arm entries in an elevated plus-maze as a measure of anxiety in the rat. J. Neurosci. Methods, 1985, 14(3), 149-167.
[] [PMID: 2864480]
Costa-Campos, L.; Dassoler, S.C.; Rigo, A.P.; Iwu, M.; Elisabetsky, E. Anxiolytic properties of the antipsychotic alkaloid alstonine. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 2004, 77(3), 481-489.
[] [PMID: 15006458]
Kulkarni, S.K.; Reddy, D.S. Animal behavioral models for testing antianxiety agents. Methods Find. Exp. Clin. Pharmacol., 1996, 18(3), 219-230.
[PMID: 8738074]
Kumar, S.; Madaan, R.; Sharma, A. Pharmacological evaluation of bioactive principle of Turnera aphrodisiaca. Indian J. Pharm. Sci., 2008, 70(6), 740-744.
[] [PMID: 21369434]
Kalueff, A.V.; Keisala, T.; Minasyan, A.; Kuuslahti, M.; Tuohimaa, P. Temporal stability of novelty exploration in mice exposed to different open field tests. Behav. Processes, 2006, 72(1), 104-112.
[] [PMID: 16442749]
Griebel, G.; Misslin, R.; Pawlowski, M.; Vogel, E. m-Chlorophenylpiperazine enhances neophobic and anxious behaviour in mice. Neuroreport, 1991, 2(10), 627-629.
[] [PMID: 1756245]
Batra, S.; Kumar, A.; Sharma, A. Authentication of morphologically similar rhizome drugs based on tlc fingerprint profiles and Valerenic acid content. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res., 2016, 7(8), 3428-3431.
Batra, S.; Kumar, A.; Sharma, A. Quantification of Valerenic acid in Ferula sumbul roots Using UPLC. Indian J. Pharm. Sci., 2017, 79(5), 834-838.
Becker, A.; Felgentreff, F.; Schröder, H.; Meier, B.; Brattström, A. The anxiolytic effects of a Valerian extract is based on valerenic acid. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 2014, 14(1), 267.
[] [PMID: 25066015]
Pathania, A.; Batra, S.; Kumar, A.; Sharma, A. Development of TLC densitometric method for the quantification of valerenic acid in S. vaginatum roots. Indian Drugs, 2016, 53, 63-65.
Sharma, P.; Batra, S.; Kumar, A.; Sharma, A. In vivo antianxiety and antidepressant activity of Murraya paniculata leaf extracts. J. Integr. Med., 2017, 15(4), 320-325.
[] [PMID: 28659237]
Sharma, S.; Batra, S.; Kumar, A.; Sharma, A. In vivo Antianxiety and antidepressant activity of extracts and isolates of Argyreia speciosa Linn. Roots. J. Pharm. Res., 2017, 11, 366-372.
Dawson, G.R.; Tricklebank, M.D. Use of the elevated plus maze in the search for novel anxiolytic agents. Trends Pharmacol. Sci., 1995, 16(2), 33-36.
[] [PMID: 7762079]
Andreatini, R.; Bacellar, L.F.S. Animal models: trait or state measure? The test-retest reliability of the elevated plus-maze and behavioral despair. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry, 2000, 24(4), 549-560.
[] [PMID: 10958150]
Vogel, H.G. Drug discovery and evaluation: Pharmacological assays; Vogel, W.H., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
Walf, A.A.; Frye, C.A. ERbeta-selective estrogen receptor modulators produce antianxiety behavior when administered systemically to ovariectomized rats. Neuropsychopharmacology, 2005, 30(9), 1598-1609.
[] [PMID: 15798780]
Kreiss, D.S.; Coffman, C.F.; Fiacco, N.R.; Granger, J.C.; Helton, B.M.; Jackson, J.C.; Kim, L.V.; Mistry, R.S.; Mizer, T.M.; Palmer, L.V.; Vacca, J.A.; Winkler, S.S.; Zimmer, B.A. Ritualistic chewing behavior induced by mCPP in the rat is an animal model of obsessive compulsive disorder. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 2013, 104, 119-124.
[] [PMID: 23333679]
Grundmann, O.; Wang, J.; McGregor, G.P.; Butterweck, V. Anxiolytic activity of a phytochemically characterized Passiflora incarnata extract is mediated via the GABAergic system. Planta Med., 2008, 74(15), 1769-1773.
[] [PMID: 19006051]
Gardner, C.R.; Tully, W.R.; Hedgecock, C.J. The rapidly expanding range of neuronal benzodiazepine receptor ligands. Prog. Neurobiol., 1993, 40(1), 1-61.
[] [PMID: 8380934]
Baretta, I.P.; Felizardo, R.A.; Bimbato, V.F.; dos Santos, M.G.; Kassuya, C.A.; Gasparotto Junior, A.; da Silva, C.R.; de Oliveira, S.M.; Ferreira, J.; Andreatini, R. Anxiolytic-like effects of acute and chronic treatment with Achillea millefolium L. extract. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2012, 140(1), 46-54.
[] [PMID: 22155391]
Moreira, M.R.; Salvadori, M.G.; de Almeida, A.A.; de Sousa, D.P.; Jordán, J.; Satyal, P.; de Freitas, R.M.; de Almeida, R.N. Anxiolytic-like effects and mechanism of (-)-myrtenol: a monoterpene alcohol. Neurosci. Lett., 2014, 579, 119-124.
[] [PMID: 25026073]
Karim, N.; Irshad, S.; Khan, I.; Mohammad, A.; Anis, I.; Shah, M.R.; Khan, I.; Chebib, M. GABA(A) receptor modulation and neuropharmacological activities of viscosine isolated from Dodonaea viscosa (Linn). Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 2015, 136, 64-72.
[] [PMID: 26187002]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy