Generic placeholder image

Current Women`s Health Reviews


ISSN (Print): 1573-4048
ISSN (Online): 1875-6581

Research Article

Characteristics of Pregnant Women Satisfying the Universal Two-Child Policy Requirements in China: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Author(s): Li Tang, Chun-Rong Li*, Tong-Yong Luo, Yong-Hong Lin, Wei Song, Zhiqiang Wang, Qingfu Lan and Shiji Qin

Volume 20, Issue 1, 2024

Published on: 02 March, 2023

Article ID: e270123213195 Pages: 7

DOI: 10.2174/1573404819666230127102711

Price: $65


Background: China officially launched the universal two-child policy in January 2016. No studies in China have examined the characteristics of pregnant women since the implementation of the new family planning policy.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in Chengdu, China, to examine pregnant women's sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics satisfying the new policy requirements. Two thousand pregnant women were enrolled in the case group, 2016-2017. The comparison group included 2,000 pregnant women from the same institutions. Maternal and clinical information was extracted from medical records.

Results: Compared to comparisons, the case group tended to have a higher household income and work in a non-state-owned enterprise/institution. Additionally, cases were more likely to be older (OR=1.36; 95% CI 1.09-1.70), have a history of cesarean section (OR=31.68; 95% CI 24.76-40.54), and suffer from gestational hypertension (OR=3.35; 95% CI 1.56-7.19), gestational diabetes mellitus (OR=1.61; 95% CI 1.24-2.10) and placenta previa (OR=4.45; 95% CI 2.70-7.34) than comparisons.

Conclusion: We suggest emphasizing the importance of reproductive counseling and assessment, particularly targeting those satisfying the universal two-child policy requirements.

Keywords: Two-child policy, pregnant women, obstetrics, China, associated factors, clinical information.

Graphical Abstract
The National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China. Chinese bid farewell to one-child policy with law amended. Available from: (Accessed on October 20, 2022)
Morgan, S.P.; Zhigang, G.; Hayford, S.R. China’s below-replacement fertility: recent trends and future prospects. Popul. Dev. Rev., 2009, 35(3), 605-629.
[] [PMID: 20376285]
Zeng, Y.; Hesketh, T. The effects of China’s universal two-child policy. Lancet, 2016, 388(10054), 1930-1938.
[] [PMID: 27751400]
Zhang, J.M. Problems and challenges of advanced age pregnancy in the universal two-child policy. Maternal Child World, 2015, 23(12), 156-157.
Fang, J.X.; Yang, S. The clinical problems of advanced age pregnancy in the two-child policy. Chinese J. Clin., 2015, 43(8), 659-661.
Lisonkova, S.; Potts, J.; Muraca, G.M.; Razaz, N.; Sabr, Y.; Chan, W.S.; Kramer, M.S. Maternal age and severe maternal morbidity: A population-based retrospective cohort study. PLoS Med., 2017, 14(5), e1002307.
[] [PMID: 28558024]
Bao, L.P. The future direction and assessment of China family planning policy implemented for 50 years. J. Soc. Sci., 2009, 6, 67-77.
National Bureau of Statistics. Statistical Bulletin of the People's Republic of China on National Economic and Social Development in 2017. Available from: 1585631.html (Accessed Sep 1, 2022)
Stoyanov, S.R.; Hides, L.; Kavanagh, D.J.; Zelenko, O.; Tjondronegoro, D.; Mani, M. Mobile app rating scale: a new tool for assessing the quality of health mobile apps. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth, 2015, 3(1), e27.
[] [PMID: 25760773]
Guangzhou Daily. The national maternal mortality rate has increased after implementation of the universal two-child policy for half a year., Available from: 746.shtml (Accessed Aug 15, 2022)
Guo, X.B. Reflection on China’s family planning policy. Theory Monthly, 2005, 11, 68-74.
Chen, D. Study on the cost of raising money: the cost of raising a family is 650,000 yuan from the age of 0-18. J. Mod. Suzhou, 2011, 14, 22-26.
Li, M.X. Investigation on the parenting cost of rural children in Zhongshan city, Guangdong province. World Survey Res., 2008, 8, 29-31.
Laopaiboon, M.; Lumbiganon, P.; Intarut, N.; Mori, R.; Ganchimeg, T.; Vogel, J.P.; Souza, J.P.; Gülmezoglu, A.M. Advanced maternal age and pregnancy outcomes: a multicountry assessment. BJOG, 2014, 121(Suppl. 1), 49-56.
[] [PMID: 24641535]
Ben-David, A.; Glasser, S.; Schiff, E.; Zahav, A.S.; Boyko, V.; Lerner-Geva, L. Pregnancy and birth outcomes among primiparae at very advanced maternal age: At what price? Matern. Child Health J., 2016, 20(4), 833-842.
[] [PMID: 26686195]
Kenny, L.C.; Lavender, T.; McNamee, R.; O’Neill, S.M.; Mills, T.; Khashan, A.S. Advanced maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcome: evidence from a large contemporary cohort. PLoS One, 2013, 8(2), e56583.
[] [PMID: 23437176]
Lao, T.T.; Sahota, D.S.; Cheng, Y.K.Y.; Law, L.W.; Leung, T.Y. Advanced maternal age and postpartum hemorrhage – risk factor or red herring? J. Matern. Fetal Neonatal Med., 2014, 27(3), 243-246.
[] [PMID: 23713943]
Martinelli, K.G.; Garcia, É.M.; Santos Neto, E.T.; Gama, S.G.N. Advanced maternal age and its association with placenta praevia and placental abruption: a meta-analysis. Cad. Saude Publica, 2018, 34(2), e00206116.
[] [PMID: 29489954]
Feng, X.L. Factors influencing rising caesarean section rates in China between 1988 and 2008. Bull. World Health Organ., 2012, 90(1), 30-39.
Liu, X.; Ruan, Y.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, W. Relationship between maternal age and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Chin.ese Med. J., 2015, 95(1), 19-22.
[PMID: 25876802]
Lei, M.X.; Liu, X.X. A case-control study on risk factors of pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome. Chinese J. Social Med., 2009, 26(3), 77-179.
Li, M. Meta-analysis of risk factors associated with pregnancy hypertension; Jilin University, 2015.
Yang, H.X.; Zhang, M.H.; Sun, W.J.; Dong, Y. Associated factors of pre-eclampsia complicated in pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism. Chin. J. Obstetrics Gynecol., 2005, 40(9), 577-580.
[PMID: 16202308]
Zhang, X.W.; Guo, M.C.; Yang, H.X. The effect of the preplacental placenta and elderly primipara women on pregnancy outcome. Chin. J. Prac. Gynecol. Obstetr., 2005, 21(2), 111-112.
Chen, S.F. Analysis of factors influencing safety of department of obstetrics based on “the second child” policy and investigation of countermeasures. J. Shanghai Jiaotong Univ., 2016, 36, 742-746.
Chen, M.; Liu, X.H.; Liang, J. Regional differences and countermeasures of maternal mortality and mortality in China. Chin. J. Prac. Gynecol. Obstetr., 2015, 12, 1095-1099.
Qin, M.; Zhu, L.P.; Zhang, L.; Du, L.; Xu, H.Q. Analysis of maternal deaths in Shanghai from 2000 to 2009. Chin. J. Prac. Obstetr. Gynecol., 2011, 46(4), 244-249.
[PMID: 21609575]
Liu, Y.L. The validity of appropriate technology of emergency of maternal postpartum hemorrhage in rural china: a systematic review. Chin. J. Emergen. Med., 2015, 24(5), 551-553.
Zeng, Q.; Yang, X.H.; Ning, L.F. Treatment of patients with postpartum hemorrhage by Bakri balloon. Chin. J. Nurs., 2015, 50(8), 1023-1024.
Li, S.F.; Yang, Y. Uterine artery embolization with femoral artery catheterization before cesarean delivery prevents postpartum hemorrhage in women with pernicious placenta previa. J. Third Military Med. Uni., 2015, 37(21), 2203-2206.
Yan, J.Y. Effects of PKCα,PKCβ and Rho kinase on human uterine contractility in atonic postpartum hemorrhage. Chin. J. Prac. Obstetr. Gynecol., 2015, 31(3), 235-238.
Shi, Y.R.; Lin, J.; Zhang, L.J. Efficacies of intrauterine balloon tamponade, intrauterine gauze tamponade and B-Lynch suture in prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage. Acad. J. Second. Military Med. Uni., 2016, 37(4), 435-440.

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy