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ISSN (Print): 1573-4072
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Research Article

Croton Oil-induced Hemorrhoidal Rats: Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory Mediated Anti-hemorrhoidal Activity of Tridax procumbens Whole Plant

Author(s): Sai Krishna Nallajerla* and Suhasin Ganta

Volume 19, Issue 7, 2023

Published on: 15 March, 2023

Article ID: e070223213490 Pages: 12

DOI: 10.2174/1573407219666230207105946

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: Hemorrhoids are anorectal disorders characterized by dilation of rectal blood vessels, inflammation, and prolapse of the anal tissue. The disease affects both men and women equally. In consequence, the increasing prevalence of the disease needs potential agents with efficiency and low cost to support the treatment.

Objective: The treatment of hemorrhoids in modern medicine is still found to be in its infancy, as there is no precise treatment for the specific disease. Tridax procumbens Linn (T. procumbens) belongs to the family Asteraceae. From the literature, the plant was found to have a traditional use for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Hence, the present research was focused on evaluating the antiinflammatory mediated anti-hemorrhoidal potential of ethanolic whole plant extract of T. procumbens (EWETP) in croton oil-induced hemorrhoidal rats.

Methods: An in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the percentage inhibition of protein (egg albumin) denaturation by Tridax procumbens. This study determined the initial protective role of plant extracts against inflammatory proteins. An in vivo, anti-inflammatory-mediated anti-hemorrhoidal study was carried out on T. procumbens in various groups of croton oil-induced hemorrhoidal rats. Wistar albino rats were selected for the present research, and hemorrhoids were induced in experimental animals using a croton oil preparation containing 6% croton oil, deionised water, pyridine, and diethyl ether. Pilex ointment was taken as a reference drug in this study. Inflammation seems to be a major pathway for the progression of hemorrhoids. Hence, in the present research, Evans blue (EB) extravasation technique was applied to quantify inflammatory proteins. On the last day of the study, blood samples were drawn from experimental animals to analyse serum and blood for TNF- α, IL-6, and the percentage of neutrophils count. Recto anal coefficient was calculated to measure croton oil-induced rectal inflammation in animals. Histopathological studies were carried out separately on a second set of animals to identify the protective role of T.procumbens on rectal tissue cell histology. Molecular docking studies were carried out to rule out the possible interaction of plant phytoconstituents with the COX-2 enzyme.

Results: Results showed that intra rectal application of croton oil preparation in albino rats developed hemorrhoids by elevating serum TNF-α and IL-6 in positive control group animals compared to normal group rats. Treatment of albino rats with T. procumbens at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg in groups IV and V has shown a significant reduction in serum TNF-α and IL-6. Furthermore, in the study, T. procumbens exhibited a significant dose-dependent reduction of EB dye extravasation in study animals. The study observations also revealed the inhibitory effect of plant extract on the blood percentage of neutrophils count and recto anal coefficient compared to the positive control group rats. Histopathological studies conducted on rectoanal tissues showed the presence of minimal rectal tissue changes in plant extract-treated group animals compared to positive control group rats. Molecular docking studies explored the possible interaction of phenolic compounds of plant extract with the COX enzyme.

Conclusion: It was concluded that Tridax procumbens had a protective role against inflammatory mediators in hemorrhoids. In hemorrhoidal rats, ethanolic leaf extract was found to reduce the plasma percentage of neutrophils and other inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, and IL-6. It could be used as a therapeutic anti-inflammatory mediated anti-hemorrhoidal agent.

Keywords: Tridax procumbens, cytokines, croton oil, hemorrhoids, TNF α, IL-6.

Graphical Abstract
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